Quality Service from Leading Experts in the Field


CARPA Assays

In vivo analysis of test drug-induced hemodynamic, hematological, biochemical, immunological and skin alterations. The experiment may be conducted on juvenile domestic pigs (the most sensitive platform), dogs, rats and mice. During the experiment the following parameters are acquired and analyzed:

  • Pulmonary Arterial Pressure (PAP)

  • Systemic Arterial Pressure (SAP)

  • Cardiac Output (CO)

  • Heart rate (HR)

  • Electrocardiogaphy (ECG)

  • Expiratory/end-tidal Carbon Dioxide pressure (pCO2)

  • All Blood Cell Counts

  • White Blood Cell (WBC) differential

  • Coagulation Parameters

  • Skin reactions (rash, flushing)

Immunogenicity Assays

In vivo immunogenicity studies in the following model animals:

  • pig

  • dog

  • rat

  • mouse

In vitro assessment of anti-drug and anti-carrier antibodies, natural and induced.

  • Anti-drug IgM and IgG antibodies (ADAs)

  • Anti-phospholipid, anti-cholesterol antibodies

  • Anti-insulin and other antibodies against proteins/peptides

Immunotoxicity Assays

In vitro assessment of standard and immune response-related hematological descriptors.

  • WBC, RBC, platelet and lymphocyte counts and WBC differential

  • Plasma thromboxane, PAF, histamine, leukotrienes, tryptase

In vitro assessment of test drug-induced complement activation in serum/plasma/whole blood.

  • Assessment of human C3a, C5a, C4d, Bb, SC5b-9

  • Assessment of C3, all species (PAN-C3)

  • Assessment of iC3b opsonization and terminal complex (C5b-9) deposition

  • SRBC (CH50) hemolytic assay, all species

In vitro assessment of test drug-induced Basophil activation in serum/plasma/whole blood.

Formulation of Complex Drugs

  • Formulation of Drug Carriers

  • Formulation of Vaccines

  • Characterization


Professional advice on

  • Optimization of particle surface composition and size in order to decrease infusion reaction (CARPA) liability

  • In vitro, in vivo and clinical study design and regulatory reporting for immune system-related toxicity